For months you have been hard at work building your aircraft,
spending all on your homebuilt aircraft. The following information is not a
crash course on how to become a prototype test pilot; rather, current again -
it's time to start getting ready for the first flight of your
If you feel rusty, get some dual, then fly solo and regain your
confidence in an aircraft that's similar to the one you've just completed. Even
"hangar flying" can be useful, if you can separate the truth from all the
bragging and "big stories."
Of course, your aircraft must be ready as well, and this
Weight and balance within the designer's specifications.
"Run up" of the engine as per manufacturer's recommendations.
(This is especially important with the two-cycle engines that have become more
and more popular recently.)
A check of the powerplant (i.e., engine, carburettor, intake and
exhaust manifold, reduction unit if applicable and propeller) to verify that it
meets the manufacturer's static RPM. An easy way of checking the THRUST is to
inflate the tires "hard," rest them on a smooth and flat surface - plywood works
well and attach a large fish scale at the aircraft's tail end. Start the engine,
warm it up, go full throttle and have a friend, without glasses, read the scale.
Thrust in pounds should be approximately four times the horsepower for a cruise
prop, five times the horsepower for a climb prop. You may want to do it several
times for better accuracy.
See Figure 1 and 2
Remember, though, the engine cooling
system is not designed for indefinite full throttle on the ground. Do not exceed
30 seconds full open and allow three minutes cooling at 150 percent idle before
the next test. Also note that the cowling must be installed as the baffling only
ducts air past the cooling fins with the cowl properly installed. You can burn
out the aircraft engine in less than 30 seconds full throttle without a cowl.
The cowl is not only an aesthetic component but also an important part of the
Of course, each time the engine is running either you or a
knowledgeable pilot must be at the controls. Tie the aircraft down for extra
During ground run up of the engine,
check that no part of the aircraft is shaking and/or vibrating heavily - check
every 200 rpm from idle to full open and watch the tail and other control
surfaces as well as the bottom of the fuselage.
It is also vital to check that the fuel supply will be adequate
in the most critical configuration - at full power usually in tail low attitude.
The fuel "head", i.e. - height of fuel from carburettor to fuel tank must meet
the minimum level for continued operation with little more than the unusable
fuel in the tank.
At the same time it is important to check the fuel quantity
gauge (empty equals when engine stops running in above critical attitude) at
1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and full. This is not only important for fuel consumption and
range check but also to detect quickly if sudden unusually high fuel consumption
develops (i.e. leak).
And, of course, by this time you either know that you can
easily inspect your engine because the cowl comes off with six DZUS fasteners or
you realize that you should look under the cowl, even if it requires unscrewing
20 fasteners for inspection!
Do not start taxi tests unless the aircraft has 1-1/2 hour fuel
supply and is loaded (with ballast if required) in the mid-range of its centre
of gravity travel; it you don't follow these guidelines, you may find yourself
in the air because you are not at gross (lower stall speed) and your error in
the indicated air speed may be significant. Remember, you also are in ground
During the taxi runs, check the brakes, the steering and get
familiar with the noise level, seat belt fastening and release, control position
(carburettor heat, fuel valve, trim, mixture, etc.) and the important instruments
such as air speed and rpm, altimeter, engine temperatures and pressures. When
you do taxi tests at speeds above 50 percent of the stall speed given by the
designer, be prepared to (accidentally) lift off. If there is enough runway
left, throttle back and put it down again. Do not push it down, though - it's
always such a shame to have to repair a brand new aircraft!
Make some 10 taxi runs on the runway to get the feeling of when
to abort take off with sufficient runway to stop with moderate use of the
brakes. This helps familiarize you with initial acceleration, and a bit (only a
bit) with how the controls feel (light, heavy, sensitive, sluggish). Always trim
at the mid-range as you are only guessing where it should be set.
Okay, your engine runs well, brakes work, instruments seem
okay, you handle the aircraft with confidence on the ground (if it's a
taildragger and you have little conventional gear experience that will take some
time getting used to. A taildragger is less stable on the ground than a tricycle
gear plane). It is very important you feel comfortable and "at home" in the
So it is time to go ....
Check once more your
gravity at mid-range position from the full travel given by the designer. Check
your fuel quantity, check it physically with your eyes or a dipstick, do not
rely on the fuel gauge until proven reliable.
Okay, the aircraft is ready, but how about you?
all, you must want to do that first flight - do not let anyone push you into the
air, even if he/she is a well-meaning relative or friend. Second, you must be
relaxed - you may check your astrological sign or biorhythms if you want - but
the important thing is you simply feel this is the day! And definitely not with
the help of a couple of beers!
Now, check the weather: There should be little or no wind, good
visibility (no haze) and at least a 3,000 foot ceiling. Avoid the time around
sunset if your active runway is 22 to 33! And, have as few friends around as
possible. (They have a tendency to make us show off; we can do that later. Now,
we just want to get up, gather important information, and come down again as
safely as possible, and get a good feel of that beauty sitting out there
I have found that the best time for smooth weather is when
those so-called friends are still in bed, when only the one reliable friend you
really want around shows up. This best time is approximately one hour after
Proceed with your pre-flight - fuel check, drain fuel system
for condensation, water. Then, start the engine, warm it up and taxi to the take
off end, check ignition and carburettor heat. Set the altimeter and trim at mid
travel. If you wish, check full throttle rpm (I usually do this during the
initial phase of take off).
Line up with the runway and push the throttle full open, not
too slowly but not too quickly either. Keep one eye on the air speed, the other
on the runway and one ear to the engine; if anything seems abnormal, just shut
the craft down, check it and fix it. In our lives we get many warnings. We
should listen to them and not have a "stubborn ego." And, I repeat, checking is
not enough. If something is wrong, we have to fix it and then try again! But,
today, everything is fine, so we keep the throttle open and very slowly lift the
airplane off as soon as you think you are fast enough. Be prepared, it may be
very nose heavy or light; we do not know the trim position yet.
Now that you are in the air, remember the danger is to hit
mother earth again before you want to, so climb gently at some 10/20 mph faster
than your lift-off speed. Adjust the trim for comfort, check the rpm, airspeed,
engine, instruments (if it starts overheating, throttle back a little) . . . and
relax! Not too much, though - keep one eye on the airport to which you want to
At two or three thousand feet AGL, still full throttle, level
off. Push the nose slightly down until altitude no longer increases, note the
rpm (this should be less than 110 percent of the red line). Is there any unusual
noise or vibration you should note?
Now, throttle back to about 90 percent of above full throttle
rpm (this should be approximately 75 percent of cruise) and trim for level
Finding the Stall Speed
Before you land you must know the indicated speed at which the
aircraft will stop flying, so you better find out now when you are up
Relax! Carburettor heat on, throttle gently back (notice the
tendency of the nose), now slowly raise the nose to reduce the speed. Do not use
ailerons, keep the ball centred - or the wings level with your rudder. Do
everything gently and stay relaxed. Keep one eye on the air speed and the other
on the ball (or horizon and wing tips). Notice everything: buffeting, stick back
pressure, control stops, "oil canning" or other noises....
Any well designed and correctly built light plane should have a
gentle stall; its nose will gently (more or less!) drop. One wing may drop
faster than the other (slight asymmetry in wing construction, or too little use
of the rudder, or gusty weather). Notice the indicated stall speed then release
the stick pressure slowly to increase the airspeed and reattach the air flow
over the wing. Apply full power gently and climb at 130 percent of your stall
speed. Trim (this trim setting will be your take off trim in this configuration,
weight, C.G. and flaps up).
Check the airport (or are you lost by now?)
Make another two
or three stalls to get a good average reading and feel comfortable.
Now come in for a landing: Use 130 percent of stall speed on
base and final, aim a few feet above the runway entrance and reduce throttle,
then speed only over the runway and just hold her back until the aircraft
settles by itself on the ground at the stall speed you now know (do not "pump"
Without stopping the engine, taxi back for another take off.
This time set the trim for climb, make the take off rotation at the indicated
stall speed, accelerate to 130 percent of stall and let her climb, downwind at
"cruise," base and final at 130 percent stall as for the first
Perform one or two more circuits before you bring her back to
her tie down. Correctly done, the above exercises will take 45 to 60 minutes.
And now you are no longer afraid of your aircraft: You know it flies and you can
handle it! Your aircraft was designed and built to fly and it does.
Call the designer of your aircraft and share with him the
pleasure of your first flight - both you as the builder and he as the designer
Next time you fly, start using flaps (if
Next month we will talk some more about the testing that should
be completed during those first 15 hours of flying your new light
testing your aircraft
After you have completed the first flight of your aircraft,
your next challenge is to get acquainted with your airplane in its various usual
(and unusual) flight attitudes and landing conditions so that you feel fully
comfortable in your aircraft and have full control over it at all times. Only
the very first flight should be an exciting adventure. After that, flying your
aircraft must become just an enjoyable routine - that's one of the reasons for
the FAA's initial flight restrictions on homebuilts. But, of course, you will
also do much "hangar flying," and when talking about your beautiful new aircraft
you should state facts, not guesses; only with hard, true figures can you
compare various aircraft.
The airspeed is perhaps the most controversial figure talked
about and we will see how you can obtain the CAS (Corrected Air Speed) from your
IAS (indicated Air Speed). The IAS is just what it says, "indicated," by your
instrument. You want to know the corrections to be applied to your reading so
that you will know exactly (within one or two miles) at what speed you are
flying at a given altitude on a given day.
The following procedure will help you establish those
Select a straight stretch of road (or railway track) with
easy marks (crossover, bridge, police speed marks, etc.) approximately 3/4 to
1-1/2 miles apart. Check the exact distance (D) on an accurate chart (or with
your car, etc.)The stretch must be flat, and you do not want any
obstructions for at least 2 miles on either end.
The aircraft must be operating well, and you have to know
the following (i.e., you need adequate instrumentation to obtain these
aircraft weight (empty, plus fuel, plus occupants)
aircraft centre of gravity (in flight, not empty)
outside temperature (Te)
pressure altitude (Pa) - set the altimeter at 29.9 in.
indicated air speed (IAS)
engine manifold pressure (PM) if available
For comparisons the aircraft weight and CG are important as the
performance may vary with both (more lift, thus higher drag for heavier weight
and the contributing lift and drag of the tail depends on the aircraft CG
The required instrumentation is basic, except that manifold
pressure may not be available. In this case you can either install one or you
may not have enough information to determine your power setting (RPM is
the altimeter must be set at the standard SL (sea level) for
all these tests; and
the outside temperature sensor gauge must be protected from
wind and sun!
Finally to complete your test equipment you need a stopwatch
and "ideal" weather; no wind and no turbulence: a windless early morning - e.i.,
usually anytime within two hours after sunrise provides excellent
If your IAS stall speed is 40 and usual cruise 105 mph (adapt
the figures to your aircraft) you will do the runs at 50, 65, 80, 95, 110
and full open. Those six runs done three times each will take close to one hour.
Two minutes before you reach your first mark, set your speed and then don't
touch the throttle again during all three runs at that speed (it may be 48 or 52
mph instead of the intended 50!). Write down on a prepared paper the IAS, Te,
Pa, RPM, PM. Also note the date, weight, CG and weather conditions (slight wind,
no wind, no clouds or structures, etc.)
Do all the runs at the same altitude (some 300 ft. AGL - above
ground level) and fly the aircraft straight along your chosen track, keeping the
altitude as constant as possible and measuring the time (T) between the chosen
landmarks (over the distance - D). Each run consists of a back (T1)
and forth (T2) over D (this minimizes wind influence) and as
mentioned you do three runs at each speed with large 180 degree turns (no
throttle change) at each end. All this requires a good pilot, especially at the
Speed: For each run
you will have a T1 and T2. The average measured
speed will be:
a(i) = 1/2 x (d/
T1 + d/
T2) for each run. And
the average run over the (say) 3 run is:
Note: If the times T1 and T2 are more
than five seconds different for consecutive runs, it is simply not accurate
enough. Become a better pilot or wait for more favourable weather.
Now make a graph using the above calculated true speed over
Power: With an
aircraft engine, the manufacturer supplies a "sea level and altitude
performance" chart in the operators manual: by using RPM, Pm and PA (you may
neglect the temperature correction if you are not too far off standard
atmosphere) you will find the power setting for each run. Without Pm you
cannot know it!
Altitude: With Pa and
Te you will find the density altitude, Pd, by using one of the modern flight
computers or the FAA Density Altitude Compensation Chart reproduced
Now you can compare your aircraft with the figures given by
others and especially the designer or manufacturer (or salesman):
For a given weight and balance and corrected to Sea Level for
comparison with others, you use the speed chart.
The stall speed is extrapolated and again corrected to sea
For cruise speed comparison you need the power setting (75% or
65%); if not available use the full throttle speed which is practical as
measured below 3,000 ft.: The available power has about the same correction as
the speed below this altitude.
Until you have done all the above testing, do not come to the
designer and tell him you've got a much better (or worse) aircraft than his
prototype. Remember, only hard, true figures allow comparisons, and to obtain
those figures is "hard work."
Good luck and enjoy those early morning performance
To find density altitude, either at field elevation or while in
flight, enter the graph with pressure altitude at left and temperature at base
of graph. Read density altitude from the sloping lines where the temperature and
pressure altitude lines cross. Pressure altitude for an airport is usually
available at any briefing office. If pressure altitude is desired while in
flight or on the ground when not otherwise available, it may be found from a
pressure altimeter. To determine pressure altitude from the altimeter, place the
altimeter setting indicator at standard sea level pressure (29.92 inches) and
read the indicated altitude which will also be pressure altitude. (Corrections
for instrumental error, if any, must be made.)
With altimeter setting
indicator at 29.92 inches, the altimeter reads 9,500 feet. Outside air
temperature is -8 degrees C. Find 9,500 feet (pressure altitude) on the scale at
the left side of the graph and follow it across the graph to where it crosses
the -8 degree C. line. Density altitude is 9,000 feet (marked I on the
Density altitude is desired for take-off from an
airfield at 5,300 feet with a runway temperature of 97 degrees F. (runway
temperature is preferable to shelter temperature if available). The weather
station furnishes a pressure altitude of 4,950 feet. Entering graph at 4,950
feet and moving across to 97 degrees F. indicates a density altitude of
approximately 8,200 feet (marked 2 on graph).