temperature and altitude on airplane performance
The figures published in the Flight Manual for the performance capabilities
of a certain model of airplane are always related to standard atmosphere (29.92
inches of mercury at 15° C at sea level). However, only rarely will the airplane
actually operate under conditions that approximate standard atmosphere. Any
increase in temperature or altitude means a decrease in the aircraft's optimum
Air density decreases with altitude. At high elevation airports, an airplane
requires more runway to take off. Its rate of climb will be less, its approach
will be faster, because the true air speed [TAS] will be faster than the
indicated air speed [IAS] and the landing roll will be longer.
Air density also decreases with temperature. Warm air is less dense than cold
air because there are fewer air molecules in a given volume of warm air than in
the same volume of cooler air. As a result, on a hot day, an airplane will
require more runway to take off, will have a poor rate of climb and a faster
approach and will experience a longer landing roll.
In combination, high and hot, a situation exists that can well be disastrous
for an unsuspecting, or more accurately, an uninformed pilot. The combination of
high temperature and high elevation produces a situation that aerodynamically
reduces drastically the performance of the airplane. The horsepower out-put of
the engines decrease because its fuel-air mixture is reduced. The propeller
develops less thrust because the blades, as airfoils, are less efficient in the
thin air. The wings develop less lift because the thin air exerts less force on
the airfoils. As a result, the take-off distance is substantially increased,
climb performance is substantially reduced and may, in extreme situations, be
Humidity also plays a part in this scenario. Although it is not a major
factor in computing density altitude, high humidity has an effect on engine
power. The high level of water vapor in the air reduces the amount of air
available for combustion and results in an enriched mixture and reduced
Mountain airports are particularly treacherous when temperatures are high,
especially for a low performance airplane. The actual elevation of the airport
may be near the operational ceiling of the airplane without the disadvantage of
density altitude. Under some conditions, the airplane may not be able to lift
out of ground effect or to maintain a rate of climb necessary to clear obstacles
or surrounding terrain.
Density altitude is pressure altitude corrected for temperature. It is,
in layman terms, the altitude at which the airplane thinks it is flying based on
the density of the surrounding air mass.
Too often, pilots associate density altitude only with high elevation
airports. Certainly, the effects of density altitude on airplane performance are
increasingly dramatic in operations from such airports, especially when the
temperature is also hot. But it is important to remember that density altitude
also has a negative effect on performance at low elevation airports when the
temperature goes above the standard air value of 15° C at sea level. Remember
also that the standard air temperature value decreases with altitude.
In order to compute the density altitude at a particular location, it is
necessary to know the pressure altitude. To determine the latter, set the
barometric scale of the altimeter to 29.92" Hg and read the altitude.
Density altitude can be calculated for any given combination of pressure
altitude and temperature, by using the circular slide rule portion of a flight
Your Airplane Flight Manual publishes information, usually in chart or table
form, on the take-off performance of a specific model of airplane. As a pilot,
you should familiarize yourself with these charts/tables, to be able to predict
how your airplane will perform under varying atmospheric conditions and you
should refer to these charts/tables whenever there is any doubt that the takeoff
conditions may not be sufficient for the performance capabilities of the
airplane. In addition, it is important to remember that the charts/tables for
any particular airplane were compiled from performance figures of factory new
equipment in optimum conditions. Any typical general aviation airplane, with
considerable time on both airframe and engine, will have a poorer performance
potential than that predicted by the charts/tables. In addition, under-inflated
tires, dragging brakes, dirt on the wings, etc., will also affect performance
If after calculating density altitude and checking the tables, it appears
that the take-off run will require more runway than is available, you, as
pilot-in-command, have several alternatives. You can lighten the load, if
possible, or you can wait until the temperature decreases. Generally, the most
critical time for flight operations when the temperature is very hot is from
mid-morning through mid-afternoon. This is especially true at high elevation
airports, but even at lower elevations, aircraft performance may be marginal.
Aircraft operations should, therefore, be planned for early morning or late
It is important to remember that in taking off from airfields that are at
high elevation, you should use as a reference the same indicated airspeed that
you would use during take-off from an airfield at sea level. It is the true
airspeed and groundspeed that is affected by the increase in elevation and
climb performance charts
Your Airplane Flight Manual also publishes data for climb performance. The
maximum, or best rate of climb, is the rate of climb which will gain the most
altitude in the least time and is used to climb after take off until ready to
leave the traffic circuit.
Many Airplane Manuals also publish charts for cruise climb. Cruise climb, or
normal climb, is the climb airspeed used for a prolonged climb. The chart
indicates the fuel used, time required to reach altitude, and still air distance
covered in order to reach various altitudes when climbing at a certain indicated
airspeed with various power settings.
cruise performance charts
Performance figures for cruise at gross weights are also given in most
Airplane Flight Manuals. These charts show the fuel consumption, true airspeed,
endurance and range that may be expected when cruising at a certain
altitude with the engine being operated at normal lean mixture at various
combinations of rpm and MP settings (to give a required % of power).
landing performance charts
Perfect landings are usually preceded by deliberately planned, and well
executed approaches. Correct approach speeds are important. Your Airplane Flight
Manual for any particular model of airplane recommends the speeds to use on
approach with various flap settings. These airspeeds should always be used.
The factor of weight is important in determining landing speed. All airplanes
stall at slower airspeeds when they are light. A lightly loaded airplane,
landing at the same airspeed that is used when it is heavily loaded, will float
before touchdown to dissipate the excess energy, thus extending the landing
distance. If the Owner's Manual does not publish a table of approach speeds as a
function of reduced weight, a rule of thumb is to reduce the calibrated approach
airspeed for the maximum weight of your airplane by one-half of the percentage
of the weight decrease. If for example, the airplane weight is 20% below
maximum, the calibrated approach airspeed would be decreased by half of that, or
On some airplanes, the manufacturer may require a particular approach speed
for all weights because, during certification flight testing, it was found that
for stability and control reasons, or for go-around safety, a fixed airspeed is
required. Always comply with the manufacturer's recommendations.
Since there is some loss in the quality of braking action on the grass of a
sod runway, the ground roll after landing can be expected to be longer than it
would be on a hard surface runway.
Density altitude affects the landing performance of an airplane as greatly as
it affects take-off performance. High temperature and high elevation will cause
an increase in the landing roll because the true airspeed is higher than the
indicated airspeed. Therefore, even though using the same indicated airspeed for
approach and landing that is appropriate for sea level operations, the true
airspeed is faster, resulting in a faster groundspeed (with a given wind
condition). The increase in groundspeed naturally makes the landing distance
longer and should be carefully considered when landing at a high elevation
field, particularly if the field is short.
Some Airplane Flight Manuals contain performance charts and tables, which
relate landing distance to density altitude. Pilots should develop the habit of
referring to these charts/tables in order to anticipate the distance that will
be required to safely land their airplane under various conditions of
critical surface contamination
An accumulation of frost, snow or ice on the wings or other horizontal
surfaces will substantially alter the lifting characteristics of the airfoil.
Even a very light layer of frost spoils the smooth flow of air over the airfoil
by separating the vital boundary layer air, producing an increase in stall speed
and a decrease in stall angle of attack. It has been proven that a few
millimetres of ice will increase the stall speed by as much as 20%. Any
substantial accumulation of snow or ice, in addition to adding significantly to
the weight of the airplane, so drastically disrupts the airflow over the wing,
that the wing may not be able to develop lift at all.
There are a number of major factors that contribute to critical surface
contamination and a knowledgeable pilot will recognize them as indicators of an
Ambient temperature provides a good indication of the potential for
Aircraft surface temperature indicates the susceptibility of the aircraft
to icing. Aircraft surface temperature is affected by solar radiation. An
aircraft will have a warmer surface temperature on a sunny day than on an
overcast day with identical ambient temperatures. When the fuel in a wing fuel
tank is very cold, the cold fuel in the tanks can so chill the aluminium. wing
surface that moisture in humid air or rain will turn to, frost or ice over the
Be alert to the conditions that cause icing even before going out to, your
aircraft. Get a thorough weather briefing and the most up-to-date forecast so
that you are aware of temperatures and precipitation at your stops and
Examine your aircraft very carefully prior to flight. Use your eyes and hands
to examine the surfaces to ensure that your aircraft is "clean" before departing
on a flight. Have the aircraft de-iced by ground crews if there is any
contamination. Be sure that the de-icing fluid is used evenly on both sides of
the aircraft and on the under as well as the upper surfaces. Use wing covers to
protect your aircraft when it is parked.
A gust or bump increases the load on the wings. The speed of the airplane
should therefore be reduced when flying in gusty air. In approaching to land, on
the other hand, a little higher speed should be maintained to assure positive
Every pilot has encountered the term ground effect. What exactly is it?
The total drag of an airplane is divided into two components, parasite drag
arid induced drag. Induced drag is the result of the wing's work in sustaining
the airplane. The wing lifts the airplane simply by accelerating a mass of air
downward. It is perfectly true that reduced pressure on top of an airfoil is
essential to lift, but still that is but one of the things that contribute to
the overall effect of rushing an air mass downward. The amount of downwash is
directly related to the work of the wing in pushing the mass of air down and
therefore to the amount of induced drag produced. At high angles of attack,
induced drag is high. As this corresponds to lower airspeeds in actual flight,
it can be said that induced drag predominates at low speed.
When a wing is flown very near the ground, there is a substantial reduction
in the induced drag. Downwash is significantly reduced; the air flowing from the
trailing edge of the wing is forced to parallel the ground. The wing tip
vortices that also contribute to Induced drag are substantially reduced; the
ground interferes with the formation of a large vortex.
Many pilots think that ground effect is caused by air being compressed
between the wing and the ground. This is not so. Ground effect is caused by the
reduction of induced drag when an airplane is flown at slow speed very near the
Ground effect exerts an influence only when the airplane is flown at an
altitude no greater than its wing span, which for most light airplanes is fairly
low. A typical light airplane has a wing span of perhaps 35 feet and will
experience the effect of ground effect only when it is flown at or below 35 feet
above the surface (ground or water).
A low wing airplane is generally more affected by ground effect than a high
wing airplane because the wing is closer to the ground. High wing airplanes are,
however, also influenced by this phenomenon.
Pilots get into trouble because of ground effect when they precipitate
take-off before the airplane has reached flying speed. Take the scenario of a
pilot trying a take-off from a poor field. He uses full power and holds the
airplane in a nose high position. Ground effect reduces induced drag and the
airplane is able to reach a speed where it can stagger off. As altitude is
gained, induced drag increases as the effect of the ground effect diminishes.
Twenty or thirty feet up, ground effect vanishes, the wing encounters the full
effect of induced drag and the struggling airplane which got off the ground on
the ragged edge of a stall becomes fully stalled and drops to earth.
Ground effect is also influential in landing. As the airplane flies down from
free air into ground effect, the reduction of induced drag as it nears the
runway comes into, effect to make the airplane float past the point of intended
touchdown. In the common case of an airplane coming in with excessive speed, the
usable portion of the runway may slip by with the airplane refusing to settle
down to land. A go around will probably be necessary. On short fields, approach
as slowly as is consistent with safety.
An airplane also tends to, be more longitudinally stable in ground effect. It
is slightly nose heavy. The downwash from the wing normally passes over the tail
at an angle that produces a download on the tail. Ground effect deflects the
path of the downwash and causes it to pass over the tailplane at a decreased
angle. The tailplane produces more lift than usual and the nose of the airplane
tends to drop. To counteract this tendency, more up elevator is required near
the ground. During take-off as the airplane climbs out of ground effect, the
download on the tailplane increases and the nose tends to pitch up.
This is discussed fully in another chapter.